Saturday, July 25, 2015

Refined Sugar Worsens Blood Lipid Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

Blood lipids such as LDL and HDL cholesterol are markers of the biological processes that impact cardiovascular disease, and they are commonly measured to assess cardiovascular risk.  When we think about the impact of food on blood lipids, dietary fat typically comes to mind.  Yet a new study shows that dietary carbohydrate, specifically high-fructose corn syrup, can have a large impact on blood lipid markers of cardiovascular disease risk.

Introduction

Dietary fats have well-established impacts on blood lipids.  For example, in short-term feeding trials, saturated fat tends to increase total cholesterol, increase LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and increase HDL ("good") cholesterol, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fat linoleic acid decreases total cholesterol and decreases LDL cholesterol.  For this reason, dietary advice to reduce cardiovascular risk tends to focus on dietary fat.

The hypothesis that refined dietary sugar is harmful to the cardiovascular system isn't new.  In 1972, British physiologist and nutrition researcher John Yudkin published a classic book called Pure, White, and Deadly, which argued, among other things, that refined sugar is harmful to the cardiovascular system.  Yet at the time, the supporting data were weak, and the hypothesis was never taken very seriously by the scientific community.

Peter Havel and his group at UC Davis have begun to breathe new life into this hypothesis with their rigorous work on the cardiovascular effects of dietary sugars.

Tuesday, July 7, 2015

What Properties Make a Food "Addictive"?

Although the concept of food addiction remains controversial, there's no doubt that specific foods can provoke addiction-like behaviors in susceptible people.  Yet not all foods have this effect, suggesting that it's related to specific food properties.  A new study aims to identify the properties that make a food "addictive".

Introduction

Friday, June 19, 2015

Thursday, June 4, 2015

Insulin Resistance Predicts a Variety of Age-related Diseases

In the last post, I reviewed a study by Gerald Reaven's group showing that insulin resistance strongly predicts the risk of cardiovascular disease over a 5-year period.  In 2001, Reaven's group published an even more striking follow-up result from the same cohort (1).  This study shows that not only does insulin resistance predict cardiovascular disease risk, it also predicts a variety of age-related diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and even overall mortality risk.

Friday, May 29, 2015

Insulin Resistance Strongly Predicts Cardiovascular Disease Risk

I recently came across a very interesting paper by the research team of Gerald Reaven, an endocrinologist at Stanford.  He has long been one of the leading researchers studying insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and their association with obesity.  Reaven's research, and that of many others, suggests that insulin resistance is a central part of the constellation of metabolic disturbances that are so common in affluent nations*.  We also have good reason to believe that it contributes to cardiovascular risk.

All the way back in 1998, Reaven's group published a paper that should raise the eyebrows of anyone interested in cardiovascular health (1).

Friday, May 15, 2015